Circle Means CIRCLE – NOT Ball/Sphere/Globe!

{Sigh} I still get Christians sending me Isaiah 40:22 allllllllllllllllllllllll the time claiming the authors of Scripture (specifically Isaiah) allegedly knew the Earth was a globe. To be fair, I have used the same argument before myself. But that was when I was doing the same thing these people are doing, which is grossly mangling the text to force meanings it does not support. Words mean things and sorry, but circle does NOT mean ball/sphere/globe!
Today, someone sent this video to me:

At the beginning of this episode, Eric Hovind says, “This is the show where we believe the Bible is literally true and scientifically accurate in every single detail.” Oh really? I think not. Not that I don’t think the Bible can be taken literally or believe that it is scientifically inaccurate, but rather I said “I think not” because I don’t believe the hosts are doing either one of the things they hold up as a foundational truth for their show. They are not taking the Bible literally, and their view of “science” is directly opposed to what the Scriptures actually say.
Frankly, this is becoming an epidemic among those who claim to believe the Bible, while simultaneously believing many of the demonstrably false claims of modern “science” (especially as it pertains to Creation vs Evolution). It is most disturbing coming from the likes of Kent and Eric Hovind, David Reeves and others, who do an otherwise amazing job of obliterating the false claims of evolutionary biology and geology, which are in direct opposition to the Biblical narrative – while somehow still maintaining absolute faith in modern cosmology – the very thing that gave birth to the false claims of all the other “ologies” to which they are so articulately opposed in the first place. I’ll deal with this issue a lot more in a future post. For now, I want to address Eric Hovind’s and Paul Taylor’s comments regarding the Biblical support of a flat Earth cosmology.
At 19:50 minutes into the above video, they talk about Isaiah 40:22. Then Paul Taylor says, “What’s interesting though is that the Hebrew word (chug) that is translated as ‘circle’ is actually used in so many places to mean a sphere! It’s a three dimensional circle.” I don’t know what kind of drugs this man must be on, because that statement is patently false – at least according to the Scriptures and I will prove it in a moment. But first, let’s talk about how the Scriptures do have a word used for a spherical object…

As the above graphic shows, Isaiah knew the difference between a ball (sphere) and a circle – and so did the KJV English translators. Speaking of, {a-hem} I must point out that KJV only types need to take note because you are contradicting these “inerrant” 1611 scholars by forcing them to agree with notions of a spherical Earth versus what they actually stated – i.e. that it is a circle. You can’t do that. By your own dogmatic (psychosis) you demand that it is a “perfect translation.” According to you, it has absolutely no errors! Remember, YHWH Himself “preserved His word” (7 times I’m told) through these men and through them alone. I hear your (bogus) arguments alllllllll the time. I get it. OK. So, I’ll hold you to your own standard (are you paying attention Mike Hoggard, Kent Hovind and Steven Anderson?). Therefore, you can NOT twist their 1611 circle into a sphere! They obviously knew the difference between a ball/sphere/globe and a circle and being brutally honest with the text, they chose to translate it as circle.

Now let’s look at the words Isaiah used in Hebrew. The Scriptures didn’t originate in English. The 1611 scholars, derived their English from the Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek texts. So, we should be able to do the same. In Isaiah 22:18, we find the first use of the word “dur” (ball) in the Scriptures:

As you can see, the same word shows up 2 more times: once more in Isaiah (29:3), describing someone completely surrounded and again in Ezekiel 24:5, describing something rounded like a pile or a mound set up for burning. The word carries the meaning of something spherical-like in nature (or as in Isaiah 29:3 as something that is all around you).
Whereas, the word in question (“chug”) concerning the Scripture’s description of our world is defined as:

Once again, we have a word that is only used only 3 times in Scripture. But let’s apply the “law of first mention” to see how it was initially introduced to us in the Bible:
Job 22:14 Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh in the circuit of heaven.
Is YHWH walking on a sphere or a “circuit” up there? Well, what is a circuit? The dictionary defines it as:

It is a circular path. I see no mention of anything in that, which would demand a definition of a sphere. YHWH is walking on a circular path.
Then we come to Proverbs and Solomon describes how the dry land “appeared” in Genesis 1 by saying:
Proverbs 8:27 When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass upon the face of the depth:
Set a compass on the face of the deep? What does that mean? This?

Well, no… not exactly. Although it is interesting that a compass is used to draw a circle, which is what Isaiah later describes. In the KJV, we aren’t really getting the full picture. It just says “set a compass”, but in the Hebrew, the word used for “set’ is:

What was inscribed? A “compass” Well… Solomon used the same word Isaiah did for circle  (Isaiah 40:22′ “chug”). Ahhhh… OK. So nooow we’re getting somewhere. Isaiah’s “circle” was – according to Solomon – inscribed into something! Here are a few other examples of how this word “chaqaq” was used (by Isaiah):
Isaiah 22:16 What hast thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth an habitation for himself in a rock?
Isaiah 49:16 Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands; thy walls are continually before me.
With the above in mind, we find that the New American Standard Bible (*which I DO NOT recommend for personal reading) gives us a clearer rendering of Solomon’s words based on a more accurate representation of the Hebrew word “chaqaq”:
Proverbs 8:27 When He established the heavens, I was there, When He inscribed a circle on the face of the deep,
Or in the King James 2000 Bible (*which I DO NOT recommend for personal reading) we see:
Proverbs 8:27 When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he drew a circle upon the face of the depth:
How do you inscribe or draw a ball into something? You can’t. No. In each of these cases, we are talking about a circle. According to the Concordance, the Hebrew noun “chug” comes from the verb form of the same word:

Note, that this form is used only once, in the first book of written (canonized) Scripture:
Job 26:10 He hath compassed the waters with bounds, until the day and night come to an end.
What does it mean to have “compassed the waters”?

In every single case, the word “chug” is used (both as a noun and a verb) to describe something circular, not spherical!
Watching the above posted video, you will also note that Eric and Paul conveniently ignored the issue of Job’s description of the Earth as a “seal.”

Job 38:14 It {the Earth} is turned as clay to the seal; and they stand as a garment.

Backing up to the previous verse, we see:
Job 38:13 That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?

Where are the “ends of the Earth” to take “hold of” on a ball?! This description fits perfectly with a circular Earth, which is pressed as a seal though. The English Standard Version says:
Job 38:14 It is changed like clay under the seal, and its features stand out like a garment.
Get some wax and a seal. Press the seal into the wax and you will get the picture: you end up with a circular, pressed flat seal with raised features!
And… LOL! Please don’t even try to use the KJV’s use of “turned” to try and “spin” some notion of Biblical support for the Earth’s rotation/orbit. Please – don’t. I’m begging you. The Bible consistently describes this place as stationary and firmly set on pillars.

Circling” back around to Isaiah 40:22, the last and final (Biblical) use of the word “chug,” there is simply no way you can force it into meaning a sphere. So, Paul Taylor is lying to you and people like Kent and Eric Hovind and others are choosing to remain willfully ignorant of the literal truth of Scripture, which is in direct contradiction to the “science” (falsely so-called) that they are believing in, and trying to manipulate the Bible into supporting.

Like it or not, believe it or not, accept it or not, your Bible is a flat Earth book! Deal with it however you must, but don’t try and force it to say something it absolutely does not even remotely support. Thus, for the love of all that is Holy, sane and true, please stop sending me Isaiah 40:22 and stop trying to use it to justify your belief in a spinning, heliocentric, globular Earth!

Thanks.

Rob Skiba

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King James XXVI

WEEK 26

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2 Thessalonians 1:2

(KJV)   Grace unto you, and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(1611 KJV) Grace vnto you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lorde Iesus Christ.

(1587 Geneva) Grace be with you, & peace fro God our Father, and from the Lorde Iesus Christ.

(1568 Bishops Bible) Grace vnto you and peace from God our father, & the Lorde Iesus Christe.

(1539 Great Bible) Grace be vnto you and peace from God oure father, and from the Lorde Iesus Chryst.

(1535 Coverdale) Grace be with you, and peace from God oure father, and from the LORDE Iesus Christ.

(1526 Tyndale) Grace be with you and peace from God oure father and from the Lorde Iesus Christ.

 

Counterfeit Versions

(1881 RV) Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(1901 ASV) Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(ERV) Grace and peace to you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(LEB) Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(LB) May God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you rich blessings and peace-filled hearts and minds.

(NABRE) grace to you and peace from God [our] Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(NASV) Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(NCV) Grace and peace to you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(NET) Grace and peace to you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

(NIRV) May God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you grace and peace.

(NIV) Grace and peace to you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(NLV) May you have loving-favor and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(RSV) Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

(NWT-Jehovah’s Witnesses) May you have undeserved kindness and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Textus Receptus – Traditional Text

χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη απο θεου πατρος ημων και κυριου ιησου χριστου

 

Hort-Westcott – Critical Text

χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη απο θεου πατρος και κυριου ιησου χριστου

 

Corrupted Manuscripts

This verse is corrupted in the following manuscripts:

B 03 – Vaticanus – Fourth century

D 06 – Paris: Claromontanus – Sixth century

P 025 – Ninth century

33 (Minuscule) – Ninth Century

 

Manuscripts Which Agree With The Textus Receptus For This Verse

Byzantine Text (450-1450 A.D.)

Stephanus (1550 A.D.)

Aleph 01 – Sinaiticus – Nineteenth Century Counterfeit
A 02 – Alexandrinus – Fifth century

K 018 – Ninth century

L 020 – Ninth century

 

Published Critical Greek Texts with Corruptions

Omits “our” and renders “the Father”

Lachmann, Karl – 1842 (in margin or brackets)

Tregelles, Samuel – 1857 (in margin or brackets)

Alford, Henry – 1849 revised in 1871

Westcott and Hort – 1881

Weiss, Bernhard – 1894

Von Soden, Freiherr – 1902

Nestle-Aland – 1979 – Twenty Sixth Edition (in margin or brackets)

Nestle-Aland – 1993 – Twenty Seventh Edition (in brackets)

Nestle-Aland – 2012 – Twenty Eighth Edition (in brackets)

United Bible Societies – 1983 – Fourth Edition (in brackets)

 

Affected Teaching

The modern versions remove the “personal pronoun Genitive case” “hemon” in the Greek text.  The modern versions replace it with the article “the” in the English just stating that God is “the” Father.  The personal pronoun teaches that God is our Father, that is, the Father of all the believers.  The modern versions remove that personal teaching and replace it with a generic teaching. The modern versions remove that familial reality.

King James XXV

WEEK 25

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Ephesians 5:21

(KJV)   Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

(1611 KJV) Submitting your selues one to another in the feare of God.

(1587 Geneva) Submitting your selues one to another in the feare of God.

(1568 Bishops Bible) Submittyng your selues one to another in the feare of God.

(1539 Great Bible) submittynge youre selues one to another in the feare of God.

(1535 Coverdale) submyttinge youreselues one to another in the feare of God.

(1526 Tyndale) submittinge youre selves one to another in the feare of God.

 

Counterfeit Versions

(1881 RV) subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ.

(1901 ASV) subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ.

(AMP) being subject to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(CEB) and submit to each other out of respect for Christ.

(CEV) Honor Christ and put others first.

(1899 Douay-Rheims American Edition) Being subject one to another, in the fear of Christ.

(ERV) Be willing to serve each other out of respect for Christ.

(ESV) submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(GNB) Submit yourselves to one another because of your reverence for Christ.

(HCSB) submitting to one another in the fear of Christ.

(ISV) and you will submit to one another out of reverence for the Messiah.

(JB PHILLIPS) And “fit in with” each other, because of your common reverence for Christ.

(LEB) being subject to one another out of reverence for Christ

(LB) Honor Christ by submitting to each other.

(THE MESSAGE) Out of respect for Christ, be courteously reverent to one another.

(NABRE) Be subordinate to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(NASV) and be subject to one another in the fear of Christ.

(NCV) Yield to obey each other as you would to Christ.

(NET) and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(NIRV)  Follow the lead of one another because of your respect for Christ.

(NIV) Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(NLV) Be willing to help and care for each other because of Christ. By doing this, you honor Christ.

(NLT) And further, submit to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(NRSV) Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(RSV) Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ.

(TLV) Also submit yourselves to one another out of reverence for Messiah—

(VOICE) And the Spirit makes it possible to submit humbly to one another out of respect for the Anointed.

(NWT-Jehovah’s Witnesses)  Be in subjection to one another in fear of Christ.

Textus Receptus – Traditional Text

υποτασσομενοι αλληλοις εν φοβωθεου

 

Hort-Westcott – Critical Texts

υποτασσομενοι αλληλοις εν φοβω χριστου

 

Corrupted Manuscripts

This verse is corrupted in the following manuscripts:

Aleph 01 – Sinaiticus – Nineteenth Century Counterfeit
A 02 – Alexandrinus – Fifth century

B 03 – Vaticanus – Fourth century

L 020 – Ninth century

P 025 – Ninth century

 

Manuscripts which agree with the Textus Receptus for this verse

Byzantine Text (450-1450 A.D.)

Stephanus (1550 A.D.)

 

Published Critical Greek Texts with Corruptions

Renders “fear of Christ” instead of “fear of God

Greisbach, Johann – 1805

Lachmann, Karl – 1842

Tischendorf, Constantine – 1869

Tregelles, Samuel – 1857

Alford, Henry – 1849 revised in 1871

Wordsworth, Christopher – 1856 revised in 1870

Westcott and Hort – 1881

Weiss, Bernhard – 1894

Nestle – 1927 as revised in seventeenth edition in 1941

Nestle-Aland – 1979 – Twenty Sixth Edition

Nestle-Aland – 1993 – Twenty Seventh Edition

Nestle-Aland – 2012 – Twenty Eighth Edition

United Bible Societies – 1983 – Fourth Edition

Von Soden, Freiherr – 1902

 

Affected Teaching

I do not have a solid reason as to why the text was changed from “God” to “Christ.”  I can only offer a speculation.  Since the Gnostics did not believe that Christ could be fully man and fully God, they may have wanted to reduce the fear of people in their assemblies by removing God and placing in Christ, whom they thought was only a man.

Joshua commanded the SUN and MOON to stand still… NOT the Earth!

Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.
And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.
And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the Lord fought for Israel” (Joshua 10-12-14).

So, my friend Zach Bauer just made a video attempting to refute what the above text actually says, stating that it is all a “perspective issue” from the Earthbound observer’s point of view.

(Watch video)

Now, to be fair, I have made some of the exact same arguments myself. But there are several problems I now have with this view:

1. The text says Joshua commanded the sun and the moon, not the Earth to stand still. He took LEGAL authority with his words. Words mean things, but even more so in a legal framework. If one is going to take legal authority over the natural world, then the words used should be quite accurate and very definitive. YHWH did not say, “Oh well, I know my servant is an ignorant moron, so I’ll do what is necessary to make his command come true. I know what he meant to say, so I’ll go ahead and stop the Earth and suspend a host of post-Copernican ‘laws’ on order to make it happen.
2. Yes, if you stop the Earth in the current post-Copernican model, the sun would appear to stop in the sky. However, the text says the moon stopped too. This presents another problem for anyone who refuses to simply take the Bible at its word. The moon is allegedly in orbit around our world, both spinning itself (in a fashion that just so happens to keep the same “face” pointed toward us all the time) as well as moving around us. So, for Joshua’s command to work as stated (and understood in the post-Copernican model of the cosmos), YHWH would have had to stop the Earth nd the moon. If He stopped the moon, but didn’t stop its rotation too, then how could it remain in sync with the same face pointed toward us precisely as it is?
3. If the Earth stops rotating, Newton’s orbital laws of motion would have to be suspended. In short, you would lose “gravity.” The magnetic field would also collapse and you would have to deal with 1,000 mile wind-sheer as the atmosphere would continue to spin even if the Earth stopped, in accordance with the Law of Inertia. The same would be true of the oceans, which would have to totally flood the whole Earth in accordance with the same law. I see no evidence of the Isrealites being drowned in this encounter.
4. The Earth (allegedly) spins and is as Zach believes heliocentric, meaning it is going around the sun. But if the sun stood still, there would have to be a suspension of both our orbital movement as well as our rotational movement in order to keep the sun specifically over one location “upon Gibeon”. So, where do we see any evidence that the Earth then spun back up to 1,000 mph, and proceeded to move back into its heliocentric orbital speed of 67,000 mph around the sun?
5. If the moon is allegedly in charge of the tides of our seas, then we’d also have significant tidal issues as it ramped back up to speed doing its thing after being stopped from doing it by Joshua’s command.

But since Zach and others like him prefer to agree with modern, monkey-man science over what the Scriptures actually say, I’ll direct such people to the same monkey-men they trust to explain many of the same problems I just gave above:
More ( lying ) video links:

And in the case of Hezikiah and the sun dial going backward, things get even worse!

In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. And Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz came unto him, and said unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Set thine house in order: for thou shalt die, and not live.
Then Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall, and prayed unto the Lord,
And said, Remember now, O Lord, I beseech thee, how I have walked before thee in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in thy sight. And Hezekiah wept sore.
Then came the word of the Lord to Isaiah, saying,
Go, and say to Hezekiah, Thus saith the Lord, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will add unto thy days fifteen years.
And I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria: and I will defend this city.
And this shall be a sign unto thee from the Lord, that the Lord will do this thing that he hath spoken;
Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sun dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.” (Isaiah 38:1-8)

Here you would have the Earth stop rotating. Then start rotating backward, then reversing again and ramping back up to 1,000 mph again. Really?? Do you have any idea how badly that would jack up all of the oceans, rivers and lakes?? Of course, you could say, “Well, it’s called a ‘miracle’ for a reason Rob. God just made it all work out that way, with no accompanying issues, which would have to occur according to our monkey-man science.” Sure. You could use that argument. Or… you could just simply agree with what the Bible says!

At no time whatsoever does the Bible in any way, shape or form even remotely support a spinning, heliocentric ball Earth concept. The sun doesn’t even show up until Day 4 of Creation for crying out loud, showing the singular importance of the Earth over the sun. The sun is here to support life on the pre-existing, stationary Earth. The Earth was here first in the Biblical model and – according to Moses – the sun, moon and stars were later placed over us inside the firmament (dome-like, metallic enclosure) that separates the waters above from the waters below. But in the model Zach supports, the firmament is gone and all importance is shifted to the sun and everything quite literally “revolves” around it instead of Earth. The problem for those who want to hold on to both the Bible and monkey-man science is that in Scripture we always see the Earth as center stage, not the sun and it is to the Earth that everything else in the cosmos remains subordinate. You cannot hold onto both the Bible and monkey-man science as they are most certainly diametrically opposing (pardon the pun) viewpoints.

Zach then goes on to talk about the various transits in front of the sun and the moons of Jupiter and such. So what?? Big deal. That doesn’t conflict with anything in the geocentric model (whether the Earth is flat or round is also irrelevant in that argument). Naturally, Mercury and Venus would have to be wayyyy smaller in order for the Flat Earth model to be true, but again, so what? Where does the Bible give us any scale to work from? Oh yeah, we trust NASA and Atheistic monkey-man science more. Right. I forgot. Sorry. Regardless, yes, Joe Blow can buy a telescope and observe all of these things for themselves. In fact, I have done just that many times in my youth. I was glued to my 300x telescope and have seen a lot of this stuff myself… but it does not prove heliocentricity.

Zach then attempts to debunk The Principle and cites the complaints of Kate Mulgrew and others who were in the film (such as Lawrence Kraus), who incidentally hate God and spend their whole careers doing all they can to discredit the Bible. So, it is no big surprise why they would be upset with the message of The Principle and having their name associated with it. To say they were “misrepresented in the film” is simply ridiculous though. They were fairly and accurately presented, giving their views on the evidence. They just didn’t like the conclusions the film makers came to as a result of that evidence and thus didn’t want their names associated with the project. Yet, you have Michio Kaku basically stating that they know they have no clue what they are talking about:

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The above is not taken out of context. It was not skillfully manipulated through editing. The man said those words on camera! But I must say it is nothing short of shocking that Zach (a man I truly do love and respect) is taking the sides of men who quite literally hate God and are proud to state as much frequently as abundantly evident in their consistent disdain for all things Biblical:

(Watch Video)

The Kate Mulgrew argument is probably the most absurd. She read the script (for 3 weeks no less) and was the freaking narrator for crying out loud! So she knew exactly what she was getting into. How could you not? If you are the narrator, you have a script. If you can read and comprehend what you are reading, then you know exactly what it is you are talking about and there can be no surprise. For the other side of Zach’s argument regarding criticism against the film makers of The Principle, please be sure to watch:
(Watch Video)

Forgetting The Principle and Flat Earth altogether, if you are still interested in the geocentric argument, please watch this video:

• Rob Skiba

King James XXIV

WEEK 24

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1 Corinthians 14:38

(KJV)   But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.

(1611 KJV)  But if any man bee ignorant, let him be ignorant.

(1587 Geneva Bible) And if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.

(1568 Bishops Bible) But yf any man be ignoraunt, let hym be ignoraunt.

(1539 Great Bible) But and yf eny man be ignoraunt, let him be ignoraunt.

(1535 Coverdale Bible) But yf eny man be ignoraunt, let him be ignoraunt.

(1526 Tyndale Bible) But and yf eny man be ignorat let him be ignorant.

 

Counterfeit Versions

(AMP)  If anyone does not recognize this [that it is a command of the Lord], he is not recognized [by God].

(CEB) If someone doesn’t recognize this, they aren’t recognized.

(CEV) So don’t pay attention to anyone who ignores what I am writing.

(Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition) But if any man know not, he shall not be known.

(ERV) If you do not accept this, you will not be accepted.

(ESV) If anyone does not recognize this, he is not recognized.

(GNB) But if he does not pay attention to this, pay no attention to him.

(HCSB) But if anyone ignores this, he will be ignored.

(ISV) But if anyone ignores this, he should be ignored.

(PHILLIPS) If any of your number thinks himself a true preacher and a spiritually-minded man, let him recognise that what I have written is by divine command! As for those who don’t know it, well, we may just leave them in ignorance.

(LEB) But if anyone ignores this, he is ignored.

(LB) But if anyone still disagrees—well, we will leave him in his ignorance.

(THE MESSAGE) If any one of you thinks God has something for you to say or has inspired you to do something, pay close attention to what I have written. This is the way the Master wants it. If you won’t play by these rules, God can’t use you. Sorry.

(NABRE) If anyone does not acknowledge this, he is not acknowledged.

(NASV) But if anyone does not recognize this, he is not recognized.

(NCV) Those who ignore this will be ignored by God.

(NET) If someone does not recognize this, he is not recognized.

(NIRV) But anyone who does not recognize this will not be recognized.

(NIV) But if anyone ignores this, they will themselves be ignored.

(NLV) If any man does not listen to this, have nothing to do with him.

(NLT) But if you do not recognize this, you yourself will not be recognized.

(NRSV) Anyone who does not recognize this is not to be recognized.

(RSV) If any one does not recognize this, he is not recognized.

(TLV) But if someone does not recognize it, he is not recognized.

(NWT-Jehovah’s Witnesses) But if anyone disregards this, he will be disregarded.

 

Textus Receptus – Traditional Text

ει δε τις αγνοει αγνοειτω

 

Hort-Westcott – Critical Text

ει δε τις αγνοει αγνοειται

 

Corrupted Manuscripts

This verse is corrupted in the following manuscripts:

Aleph 01 – Sinaiticus – Nineteenth Century Counterfeit (original)
A 02 – Alexandrinus – Fifth century (original)

D 06 – Paris: Claromontanus – Sixth century (original)

048 – Fifth century

 

Manuscripts which agree with the Textus Receptus for this Verse

Byzantine Text (450-1450 A.D.)

Stephanus (1550 A.D.)

Aleph 01 – Sinaiticus – Nineteenth Century Counterfeit (corrected)
A 02 – Alexandrinus – Fifth century (corrected)

B 03 – Vaticanus – Fourth century

D 06 – Paris: Claromontanus – Sixth century (corrected)

K 018 – Ninth century

L 020 – Ninth century

P 46 – circa 200 AD

 

Published Critical Greek Texts with Corruptions

Reads “he is ignored” instead of “let him be ignorant”

Lachmann, Karl – 1842

Tischendorf, Constantine – 1869

Westcott and Hort – 1881 (in brackets or margin)

Nestle – 1927 as revised in seventeenth edition in 1941

Nestle-Aland – 1979 – Twenty Sixth Edition

Nestle-Aland – 1993 – Twenty Seventh Edition

Nestle-Aland – 2012 – Twenty Eighth Edition

United Bible Societies – 1983 – Fourth Edition

Von Soden, Freiherr – 1902

 

Affected Teaching

Here Paul is beginning his summation that if someone is ignorant, not understanding the word of the Lord, then let him remain that way. The church must never change the rules for those who do not wish to grow in the faith. The word “ignorant” means “not understanding.” If a person wants to understand and grow, then the elders should teach them, but if they choose to remain ignorant, as many do today, then let them remain that way to their own shame.  The modern versions use words like “recognize” which means “seeing something a second time.”  It is a different meaning than ignorant.  The phrase “let him be ignorant” is in the Present Tense Active Voice Imperative Mood.  The present tense means the ignorance is always present in a person.  The active voice means they are doing something to fight against knowledge or understanding.  The Imperative Mood in this case is not a command because Paul would never command someone to remain ignorant because his whole ministry was bringing understanding of the mystery of the Gospel.  In this case it is basically a request or entreaty as if Paul is entreating a superior.  He is stating that if a person wants to remain ignorant, then let them and others should progress in the Christian walk.

Obama First US President To Chair UN Security Council

Some unprecedented news, folks. Never in the history of the United Nations has a U.S. President taken the chairmanship of the powerful UN Security Council. Perhaps it is because of what could arguably be a Constitutional prohibition against doing so. To wit: Section 9 of the Constitution says:

  “No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Nonetheless, the rotating chairmanship of the council goes to the U.S. this month. The normal course of business would have U.S. Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice take the gavel. However, this time will be different. Constitution be damned, Barack Hussein Obama has decided to put HIMSELF in the drivers seat, and will preside over global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament talks slated to begin September 24th. The Financial Times says:

Barack Obama will cement the new co-operative relationship between the US and the United Nations this month when he becomes the first American president to chair its 15-member Security Council.

  The topic for the summit-level session of the council on September 24 is nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament – one of several global challenges that the US now wants to see addressed at a multinational level.

  UN officials also hope a climate change debate on September 22 will give fresh impetus to the search for a global climate deal at Copenhagen in December. There are also hopes a possible meeting between Benjamin Netanyahu, Israeli prime minister, and Mahmoud Abbas, Palestinian Authority president, that Mr. Obama would host, could lead to a breakthrough about a timetable for Middle East peace.

Here is what the UN Security Council does. Picture Obama as the Chair of this committee with this power.

Under the UN Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

* to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations

* to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction

* to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement

* to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments

* to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken

* to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression

* to take military action against an aggressor

* to recommend the admission of new Members

* to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”

* to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

No American president has ever attempted to acquire the image of king of the Universe by officiating at a meeting of the UN’s highest body. Obama apparently believes that being flanked by council-member heads of state like Col. Moammar Qaddafi – who is expected to be seated five seats to Obama’s right – will cast a sufficiently blinding spell on Americans.

He undoubtedly hopes that the horrid state of the nation’s economy, turmoil over health care, and a summer of racial scapegoating will pale by comparison. This role as UN Security Council chair will allow him to make decisions, influence legislation and resolutions, and set the agenda.

Right Soup will be closely following this very unsettling turn of events. Like I always say, pay attention to what Obama DOES.

http://rightsoup.com/while-we-were-looking-the-other-way-
obama-to-be-first-president-to-chair-un-security-council/

From Rense.com

Healthy 12-year-old girl dies shortly after receiving HPV vaccine

image

Friday, September 26, 2014 by: Ethan A. Huff, staff writer

(NaturalNews) Another young girl has died from Gardasil, the infamous HPV vaccine manufactured by Merck & Co., and the medical establishment claims that it was a fluke. Twelve-year-old Meredith Prohaska from Waukesha (not the girl pictured), Wisconsin, died just a few hours after getting her Gardasil shot, and her parents are sure that the vaccine was the cause of death.

According to FOX6Now.com, Meredith was an otherwise healthy, fun-loving girl prior to her death. She did have a sore throat the day that she died, which is why her parents took her to the doctor in the first place. But it was a minor ailment that, in light of the events of that fateful day, couldn’t possibly have killed her that quickly or coincidentally.

Reports indicate that Meredith’s parents took her to the doctor during the morning hours of August 7. Around 10:30 am, she received her first HPV vaccine, which about 30 minutes later appeared to lull her into a deep sleep. Meredith’s mother Rebecca recalls having had to repeatedly wake her up so she could make it through the day.

Later that afternoon at around 3:30 pm, Rebecca left the house for about 30 minutes to get some food. When she returned, she found her daughter lying on the floor unconscious, upon which she initiated CPR — Rebecca served as an EMT (emergency medical technician) for the National Guard for 14 years, so she knew what she was doing.

When the CPR failed, Rebecca immediately called 911, and Meredith was rushed to the hospital. But it was too late — the girl was pronounced dead upon arrival, without explanation.

“It was the hardest thing when they called and said they don’t know,” stated Rebecca to FOX6Now.com. “There was no reason [for her death]. She was the healthiest 12-year-old.”

Rebecca decided to take a closer look at the HPV handout that she was given that morning, only to find that her daughter apparently suffered certain rare side effects caused by the vaccine. But when the media caught wind of the story, damage control was quickly engaged, with a professor and medical doctor from the Milwaukee Health Department claiming that the vaccine wasn’t to blame.

DR. SWAIN HAS ACCEPTED MORE THAN $1 MILLION TO PROMOTE VACCINES

This doctor and professor is known as Geoffrey Swain, and VacTruth.com reports that he has sucked heavily from the teat of Big Vaccine. According to Dr. Swain’s resume, which is available through the Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), this pro-vaccine spokesman has accepted more than $1 million from vaccine interests to defend and promote vaccines.

More than $900,000 of this bounty came from the CDC, which apparently tasked Dr. Swain with investigating immunization rates (whatever that means). Another nearly $160,000 was given by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a non-profit organization that promotes vaccines and looks for new ways to get more people vaccinated.

It is hardly surprising, then, that Dr. Swain publicly dismissed the concerns of the Prohaska family about the safety of Gardasil. In typical shill fashion, Dr. Swain quickly reassured the public that Gardasil is “very, very safe,” also emphasizing that it’s a “very safe vaccine and very effective.”

Of course it is, Dr. $wain.

Sources for this article include:

http://vactruth.com

http://fox6now.com

http://www.cuph.org [PDF]

http://science.naturalnews.com

The Flat-Earth Bible

© 1987, 1995 BY ROBERT J. SCHADEWALD
REPRINTED FROM THE BULLETIN OF THE TYCHONIAN SOCIETY #44 (JULY 1987)

When I first became interested in the flat-earthers in the early 1970s, I was surprised to learn that flat-earthism in the English-speaking world is and always has been entirely based upon the Bible. I have since assembled and read an extensive collection of flat-earth literature. The Biblical arguments for flat-earthism that follow come mainly from my reading of flat-earth literature, augmented by my own reading of the Bible.
Except among Biblical inerrantists, it is generally agreed that the Bible describes an immovable earth. At the 1984 National Bible-Science Conference in Cleveland, geocentrist James N. Hanson told me there are hundreds of scriptures that suggest the earth is immovable. I suspect some must be a bit vague, but here are a few obvious texts:
1 Chronicles 16:30: “Fear before him, all the earth: the world also shall be stable, that it be not moved.
Psalm 93:1: “ …the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Psalm 96:10: “…the world also shall be established that it shall not be moved:…
Psalm 104:5: “Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever.
Isaiah 45:18: “…the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it,…
Suffice to say that the earth envisioned by flat-earthers is as immovable as any geocentrist could desire. Most (perhaps all) scriptures commonly cited by geocentrists have also been cited by flat-earthers. The flat-earth view is geocentricity with further restrictions.

Like geocentrists, flat-earth advocates often give long lists of texts. Samuel Birley Rowbotham, founder of the modern flat-earth movement, cited 76 scriptures in the last chapter of his monumental second edition of Earth not a Globe. Apostle Anton Darms, assistant to the Reverend Wilbur Glenn Voliva, America’s best known flat-earther, compiled 50 questions about the creation and the shape of the earth, bolstering his answers with up to 20 scriptures each. Rather than presenting an exhaustive compendium of flat-earth scriptures, I focus on those which seem to me the strongest. I also comment on some attempts to find the earth’s sphericity in the Bible.
Scriptural quotes, unless otherwise noted, are from the King James Version Bible. Hebrew and Greek translations are from Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the King James Version. The Biblical cosmology is never explicitly stated, so it must be pieced together from scattered passages. The Bible is a composite work, so there is no a priori reason why the cosmology assumed by its various writers should be relatively consistent, but it is.
The Bible is, from Genesis to Revelation, a flat-earth Bible.
This is hardly surprising. As neighbors, the ancient Hebrews had the Egyptians to the southwest and the Babylonians to the northeast. Both civilizations had flat-earth cosmologies. The Biblical cosmology closely parallels the Sumero-Babylonian cosmology, and it may also draw upon Egyptian cosmology.
The Babylonian universe was shaped like a modern domed stadium. The Babylonians considered the earth essentially flat, with a continental mass surrounded by ocean. The vault of the sky was a physical object resting upon the ocean’s waters (and perhaps also upon pillars). Sweet (salt-free) waters below the Earth sometimes manifest themselves as springs. The Egyptian universe was also enclosed, but it was rectangular instead of round. Indeed, it was shaped much like an old-fashioned steamer trunk. (The Egyptians pictured the goddess Nut stretched across the sky as the enclosing dome.) What was the Hebrew view of the universe?

THE ORDER OF CREATION

The Genesis creation story provides the first key to the Hebrew cosmology. The order of creation makes no sense from a conventional perspective but is perfectly logical from a flat-earth viewpoint. The earth was created on the first day, and it was “without form and void.” (Genesis 1:2), On the second day, the “firmament (a vault) was created to divide the waters, some being above and some below the vault. Only on the fourth day were the sun, moon, and stars created, and they were placed “in” (not “above”) the “firmament (vault).

THE VAULT OF HEAVEN

The vault of heaven is a crucial concept. The word “firmament” appears in the King James Version of the Old Testament 17 times, and in each case it is translated from the Hebrew word râqîya , which meant the visible arch of the sky. The word râqîya comes from râqa‛, meaning “beat, make broad {spread})”. In ancient times, brass objects were either cast in the form required or beaten into shape on an anvil. A good craftsman could beat a lump of cast brass into a thin bowl. Thus, Elihu asks Job, “Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass? (Job 37:18)
Elihu’s question shows that the Hebrews considered the vault of heaven a solid, physical object. Such a large dome would be a tremendous feat of engineering. The Hebrews (and supposedly Yahweh Himself) considered it exactly that, and this point is hammered home by five scriptures:
Job 9:8, “…Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, [shâmayim]
Psalm 19:1, “The heavens [shâmayim] declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.
Psalm 102:25, “…the heavens [shâmayim] are the work of thy hands.
Isaiah 45:12,I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, [shâmayim] and all their host have I commanded.
Isaiah 48:13, “my right hand hath spanned the heavens:
If these verses are about a mere illusion of a vault, they are surely much ado about nothing. Shâmayim comes from shâmeh, a root meaning to be lofty. It literally means the sky. Other passages complete the picture of the sky as a lofty, physical dome. God “…sitteth upon the circle [chûg] of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens [shâmayim] as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in: (Isaiah 40:22). Chûg means “circle or
encompassed”. By extension, it can also mean roundness, as in a rounded dome or vault. Job 22:14 says God “..walketh in the circuit of heaven [chûg].

In both verses, the use of chûg implies a physical object, on which one can sit and walk. Likewise, the context in both cases requires elevation. In Isaiah, the elevation causes the people below to look small as grasshoppers. In Job, God’s eyes must penetrate the clouds to view the doings of humans below.

Elevation is also implied by Job 22:12: “Is not God in the height of heaven? [shâmayim] and behold the height of the stars, how high they are!
This picture of the cosmos is reinforced by Ezekiel’s vision. The Hebrew word râqîya appears five times in Ezekiel, four times in Ezekiel 1:22-28 and once in Ezekiel 10:1. In each case the context requires a firmament (vault) or dome. The vault appears above the “living creature and glitters “as the colour of the terrible crystal.
Above the firmament (vault) is a throne of sapphire. Seated on the throne is “…the likeness as the appearance of a man…” which is radiant and “the likeness of the glory of the LORD.” In short, Ezekiel saw a vision of God sitting throned on the firmament (vault) of heaven, as described in Isaiah 40:22.

THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH

Disregarding the dome, the essential flatness of the earth’s surface is required by verses like Daniel 4:10-11. In Daniel, the king saw “…a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great. and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth:” If the earth were flat, a sufficiently tall tree would be visible to “the ends of the earth,” but this is impossible on a spherical earth. Likewise, in describing the temptation of Jesus by satan, Matthew 4:8 says, “Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;” Obviously, this would be possible only if the earth were flat. The same is true of Revelation 1:7: “Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him,…

THE CELESTIAL BODIES

The Hebrews considered the celestial bodies relatively small. The Genesis creation story indicates the size and importance of the earth relative to the celestial bodies in two ways, first by their order of creation, and second by their positional relationships. They had to be small to fit inside the vault of heaven. Small size is also implied by Joshua 10:12, which says the sun stood still “upon Gibeon” and the moon “in the valley of Ajalon.
Further, the Bible frequently presents celestial bodies as exotic living beings. For example, “In them [the heavens], hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.
His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.” (Psalm 19:4-6) The stars are anthropomorphic demigods. When the earth’s cornerstone was laid “When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?” (Job 38:7)
The “…son of the morning” [lucifer, satan, devil] is censured for trying to set his throne above that of other stars:
For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.” (Isaiah 14:13-14).
Deuteronomy 4:15-19 recognizes the god-like status of stars, noting that they were created for other peoples to worship.
Stars can fall from the skies according to Daniel 8:10 and Matthew 24:29. The same idea is found in the following verses from Revelation 6:13-16:
And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.
And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;
And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:
This is consistent with the Hebrew cosmology previously described, but it is ludicrous in the light of modern astronomy. If one star let alone all the stars in the sky “fell” on the earth, no one would be hollering from any mountain or crag. The writer considered the stars small objects, all of which could fall to the earth without eradicating human life. He also viewed the sky as a physical object. The stars are inside the sky, and they fall before the sky opens. When it is whisked away, it reveals the One throned above (see Isaiah 40:22).

WEAKER ARGUMENTS

Flat-earthers also offer some scriptural arguments that are (in my view) weak, ambiguous, erroneous, or irrelevant. (Ironically, it is these that apologists for sphericity usually choose to deal with in their rebuttals to the flat-earthers!) The weak and ambiguous arguments can help support a cumulative picture but are insufficient on their own.
One of the weaker scriptural arguments is that the sky literally has openings (windows) which God can open to let the waters above fall to the surface as rain (see Genesis 7:11, 8:2; Isaiah 24:18-19; Jeremiah 51:15-16, and Malachi 3:10). While the idea and scriptures are certainly consistent with the flat-earth cosmology, they could (for instance) refer to openings in a spherical shell surrounding a spherical earth. The same applies to the Tower of Babel story in Genesis 11:4, often cited as an attempt to literally reach the heavens.
Likewise, flat-earthers frequently cite the numerous Old Testament verses referring to the earth’s foundations (see 2 Samuel 22:16; Job 38:4; Psalm 18:15; Proverbs 8:29; Isaiah 24:18 and numerous others). Foundations are, however, fairly well-covered by geocentricity. No one would argue for a flat-earth solely on the basis of “foundations” quotes.
Another less-than-conclusive argument that the Bible is a flat-earth book is its references to the earth’s “corners” For example, “And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners [gōnia] of the the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, …” (Revelation 7:1) Spherical apologists are quick to point out that the Greek gōnia can refer to regions rather than points. Most translations of the Bible opt for points (the King James version says “on the four corners of the the earth”), implying that the writer viewed the habitable earth as a four-cornered area. (This was indeed the way many early churchmen interpreted it [Cosmas, 548]. The modern flat-earth model doesn’t have literal corners.) The corners could, however, be those regions at the ends of the earth referred to by Jeremiah: “...he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures.”  (Jeremiah 51:16)
We shall return to the ends of the earth.
The Biblical view of the universe is relatively clear and consistent. Biblical statements bearing on cosmology are (with one possible exception yet to be discussed) consistent with the well-known flat-earth cosmologies of the ancient Near East, but they are often flatly contradicted by modern science.
How do spherical apologists reply?

SPHERICAL APOLOGETICS

Those who claim Biblical support for a spherical earth typically ignore this forest of consistency and focus on one or two aberrant trees. Some take refuge in audacity. Henry Morris, president of the Institute for Creation Research, cites one of the more explicitly flat-earth verses in the Old Testament Isaiah 40:22, the “grasshoppers” verse quoted earlier as evidence for the sphericity of the earth. Quoting the King James version “he sitteth upon the circle of the earth”. Morris ignores the context and the grasshoppers and claimscircle should read “sphericity” or “roundness” [1956, 8]. This divide and conquer strategy is poor scholarship and worse logic.
Heroic efforts have been made by apologists to explain away the firmament, which encloses the celestial bodies, has waters above it, and is a masterpiece proving the Creator’s craftsmanship. The late Harold W. Armstrong argued that it is empty Newtonian space, and that the “waters above still surround the edges of the universe, though perhaps not in liquid form [1979, 26]. This simply ignores difficulties and invents evidence. Gerardus Bouw tried to identify the firmament as a mathematical plenum [1987]. In my view, it is a grave error to reinterpret ancient documents to force their authors to speak with modern voices. Gary Zukov [1979] and Fritjof Capra [1976], for instance, read modern physics into the teachings of eastern mysticism. I consider all such attempts equally suspect.
Perhaps the scripture most frequently offered as evidence of the earth’s sphericity is the King James Version (*obviously) of Job 26:7, “He stretcheth out the north [tsâphôn] over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing [belîymâh].” (The New English Bible translates it, “God spreads the canopy of the sky over chaos and suspends earth in the void.”) It is not clear what this means. The Hebrew tsâphôn literally meant hidden or dark, and it was used in reference to the northern regions. Belîymâh literally means “nothing.” That would contradict all of the scriptures which say the earth rests on foundations, but that interpretation is not necessary. We will return to Job 26:7 later.
Speaking of foundations; Gerardus Bouw, in an undated paper entitled “The Form of the Earth”, cites a barrage of scriptures about the foundations of the earth or world as evidence for sphericity. All (or nearly all) of these verses have traditionally been used by flat-earthers to prove the earth flat. If one views the earth as an architectural structure with floor, curtain walls, and a roof, it is natural to assume it has foundations (and, I might add, a cornerstone). Why a sphere would have foundations escapes me. Bouw’s argument that these scriptures refer to the earth’s core seems strained at best. Also strained is Bouw’s interpretation of “the ends of the earth” as the points most distant from Jeri Salem, and his identification of the Chukchi Peninsula of the Soviet Union, Alaska, Cape Horn, and the southeastern tip of Australia as the “four corners” of the earth.

Bouw’s most interesting argument for sphericity is based on the gospel of Luke. He compares the King James version of Luke 17:31 and 17:34. The former says “In that day, he which shall be upon the house top…” and the latter “in that night there shall be two men in one bed…” (bold added). Bouw then cites 1 Corinthians 15:52 to argue that the events are simultaneous, claiming simultaneity is possible only on a spherical earth. First of all, the latter claim is wrong. The modern (though not the ancient) flat-earth model has day and night occurring simultaneously at different points on earth. Second, the Greek hēmera was used much like the English “day.” It could mean the daylight hours, a 24-hour day, or (figuratively) an epoch of unspecified length. Third, Luke appears to have been writing figuratively, and citing Paul to prove otherwise begs the question.
One more spherical argument deserves notice. The 1985 National Creation Conference in Cleveland ended with a formal debate on the relative merits of heliocentricity and geocentricity. Richard Niessen of Christian Heritage College, defending the Copernican view, remarked that the Bible teaches a spherical earth because it treats north and south as absolutes, but east and west as relative. As evidence of the latter, he cited Psalm 103:12 which says, “As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us.” Again, the modern flat-earth model holds that north and south are absolutes, but east and west are relative. In the ancient flat-earth model, however, east and west were about as far apart as you could get, which seems to be the image Psalm 103:12 was intended to invoke.
In my view, all arguments to prove the Bible teaches a spherical earth are weak if not wrong-headed. On the other hand, the flat-earth cosmology previously described is historically consistent and requires none of the special pleading apparently necessary to harmonize the Bible with sphericity.

THE BOOK OF ENOCH

The cosmology previously described is derived from the Bible itself, following the 19th century flat-earthers. Some of the evidence is more ambiguous than we would like. Ambiguities in ancient documents can often be elucidated by consulting contemporary documents. The most important ancient document describing Hebrew cosmology is 1 Enoch (sometimes called the Ethiopic Book of Enoch), one of those long, disjointed, scissors and paste jobs beloved by ancient scribes. For a dozen or so centuries, European scholars knew 1 Enoch only from numerous passages preserved in the patristic literature. In 1773, the Scottish adventurer James Bruce found complete copies in Ethiopia.
Numerous manuscripts of 1 Enoch have since been found in Ethiopian monasteries. Turn of the century scholars concluded that parts of the book are pre-Maccabean, and most (perhaps all) of it was composed by 100 B.C. [Charles, 1913]. These conclusions were largely vindicated when numerous fragments of 1 Enoch were found among the so-called Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran. There have been two major English translations of 1 Enoch, the 1913 translation of R. H. Charles and the 1983 translation by E. Isaac. All of the quotations that follow come from the newer translation.
The importance of 1 Enoch is poorly appreciated outside the scholarly community. Comparison of its text with New Testament books reveals that many Enochian doctrines were taken over by early Christians. E. Isaac writes:
There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines concerning the nature of the Messiah, the Son of Man, the messianic kingdom, demonology, the future, resurrection, final judgment, the whole eschatological theater, and symbolism. No wonder, therefore, that the book was highly regarded by many of the apostolic and Church Fathers [1986, 10].

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THE COSMOS AS DESCRIBED IN THE BOOK OF ENOCH

Picture © 1992 by Robert Schadewald.

First Enoch influenced Matthew, Luke, John, Acts, Romans, and several other New Testament books. The punishment of the fallen angels described in 2 Peter seems to come directly from 1 Enoch, as does much of the imagery (or even wording) in Revelation. The Epistle of Jude contains the most dramatic evidence of its influence when it castigates “enemies of religion” as follows:
It was to them that Enoch, the seventh in descent from Adam, directed his prophecy when he said: “…Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,
To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.
The inner quote, 1 Enoch 1:9, is found in the original Hebrew on a recently-published Qumran fragment [Shanks, 1987, 18]. By attributing prophecy to Enoch, Jude confers inspired status upon the book.
First Enoch is important for another reason. Unlike the canonical books of the Bible, which (in my view) were never meant to teach science, sections of 1 Enoch were intended to describe the natural world. The narrator sometimes sounds like a 2nd century B.C. Carl Sagan explaining the heavens and earth to the admiring masses. The Enochian cosmology is precisely the flat-earth cosmology previously derived from the canonical books.

THE ENDS OF THE EARTH

The angel Uriel guided Enoch in most of his travels. They made several trips to the ends of the earth, where the dome of heaven came down to the surface. For instance, Enoch says:
I went to the extreme ends of the earth and saw there huge beasts, each different from the other and different birds (also) differing from one another in appearance, beauty, and voice. And to the east of those beasts, I saw the ultimate ends of the earth which rests on the heaven. And the gates of heaven were open, and I saw how the stars of heaven come out…(1 Enoch 33:1-2).
(The sharp-eyed reader will note what I suspect is an editing error in the Isaac translation. The earth resting on the heaven makes no sense. R. H. Charles has “whereon the heaven rests.”)
Again, Enoch says, “I went in the direction of the north, to the extreme ends of the earth, and there at the extreme end of the whole world I saw a great and glorious seat. There (also) I saw three open gates of heaven; when it blows cold, hail, frost, snow, dew, and rain, through each one of the (gates) the winds proceed in the northwesterly direction.” (1 Enoch 34:1-2). This accords well with Jeremiah 51:16 which says, “…and he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures.” In subsequent chapters, Enoch journeys “to the extreme ends of the earth” in the west, south, and east. In each place he saw three more “open gates of heaven.
There were other things to be seen at the ends of the earth. Earlier, we deferred discussion of the King James Version of Job 26:7, “He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.” On several occasions when Enoch and the angel are out beyond the dome of heaven, Enoch comments that there is nothing above or below. For instance, “And I came to an empty place. And I saw (there) neither a heaven above nor an earth below, but a chaotic and terrible place.” (1 Enoch 21:1-2). Could this be the kind of nothingness referred to in Job?
An angel also showed Enoch the storerooms of the winds (18:1) and the cornerstone of the earth (18:2).

THE SUN AND MOON

What of the sun and moon? Psalm 19:4-6 (quoted earlier) suggest that the sun holes up at the ends of the earth until it is time to rise. Enoch expands upon this idea. In 1 Enoch 41:5, he “saw the storerooms of the sun and the moon, from what place they go out and to which place they return…” Further, “they keep faith one with another: in accordance with an oath they set and they rise.
Enoch discusses the solar and lunar motions at length, explaining why the apparent azimuths of their rising and setting varies with the season. The explanation, found in the section called “The Book of the Heavenly Luminaries” begins thus:
This is the first commandment of the luminaries: The sun is a luminary whose egress is an opening of heaven, which is (located) in the direction of the east, and whose ingress is (another) opening of heaven, (located) in the west. I saw six openings through which the sun rises and six openings through which it sets. The moon also rises and sets through the same openings, and they are guided by the stars; together with those whom they lead, they are six in the east and six in the west heaven. All of them (are arranged) one after another in a constant order. There are many windows (both) to the right and the left of these openings. First there goes out the great light whose name is the sun; its roundness is like the roundness of the sky; and it is totally filled with light and heat. The chariot in which it ascends is (driven by) the blowing wind. The sun sets in the sky (in the west) and returns by the northeast in order to go to the east; it is guided so that it shall reach the eastern gate and shine in the face of the sky.” (1 Enoch 72:2-5).
The openings in the vault of heaven in the east and west are matched to the seasons. On the longest day of the year, the sun rises and sets through the northernmost pair. On the shortest day, it rises and sets through the southernmost pair. The return routes of the sun and moon are outside the dome.

Perhaps they rest in their “storerooms” during their time off.

THE STARS

Like the Bible, 1 Enoch typically depicts stars as living, anthropomorphic beings. The sons of the Gods are also dealt with in 1 Enoch, and they are associated with stars. This is consistent with Job 38:7, which says that when the earth’s cornerstone was laid “When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
As mentioned earlier, Matthew 24:29 andRevelation 6:13 deal with stars that fall to earth. The image comes from Enoch, but Matthew and John omit some details. In 1 Enoch 88:1, a star that fell from the sky is seized, bound hand and foot, and thrown into an abyss. A few verses later, other stars “whose sexual organs were like the organs of horses” are likewise bound hand and foot and cast “into the pits of the earth.” (1 Enoch 88:3)
Most stars just go through their motions night after night. Some stars never set, and Enoch was shown their chariots (1 Enoch 75:8). Stars that do rise and set, do so through openings in the dome, just like the sun and moon. God, according to1 Enoch, runs a tight universe, and stars that do not rise on time are thrown into the celestial slammer. Showing Enoch a hellish scene, the angel Uriel explains:
This place is the (ultimate) end of heaven and earth: it is the prison house for the stars and the powers of heaven. And the stars which roll over upon the fire, they are the ones which have transgressed the commandments of God from the beginning of their rising because they did not arrive punctually.” (1 Enoch 18:14-15).
Enoch was not told the sentence for tardy rising, but Uriel later shows him other stars “which have transgressed the commandments of the Lord,” for which they were doing ten million years of hard time (1 Enoch 21:6). Enoch also was shown an even more terrible place, a fiery prison house where fallen angels were detained forever (1 Enoch 21:10).
1 Enoch deserves study for its cosmology, but there is much more of interest. It profoundly influenced Christian eschatology, and it is necessary reading for anyone trying to understand Hebrew religious thought at the dawn of the Christian era.

CONCLUSION

From their geographical and historical context, one would expect the ancient Hebrews to have a flat-earth cosmology. Indeed, from the very beginning, ultra-orthodox Christians have been flat-earthers, arguing that to believe otherwise is to deny the literal truth of the Bible. The flat-earth implications of the Bible were rediscovered and popularized by English-speaking Christians in the mid-19th century. Liberal scriptural scholars later derived the same view. Thus, students with remarkably disparate points of view independently concluded that the ancient Hebrews had a flat-earth cosmology, often deriving this view from scripture alone. Their conclusions were dramatically confirmed by the rediscovery of 1 Enoch.

NOTES

Armstrong, Harold, 1979. “The Expanding Universe and Creation.” In Repossess the Land (essays and technical papers from the 15th Anniversary Convention of the Bible- Science Association, August 12-15, 1979), pp. 22-27. Minneapolis: Bible-Science Association.
Bouw, Gerardus, n.d. “The Form of the Earth.” Contributions of the Northcoast Bible-Science Association No. 2. Cleveland: Northcoast Bible-Science Association.
Bouw, Gerardus, 1987. “The Firmament.” In Bulletin of the Tychonian Society, n. 43 (April 1987), pp. 11-20.
Capra, Fritjof, 1976. The Tao of Physics. Reprint. New York: Bantam Books, 1977
Charles, R. H., 1913. “Book of Enoch.” In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, v. 2, edited by R. H. Charles, pp. 163-281. London: Oxford University Press.
Cosmas Indicopleustes, 548. Topographia Christiana. Translated by J. W. McCrindle. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1897.
Darms, Anton, 1930. “The Teaching of the Word of God Regarding the Creation of the World and the Shape of the Earth Fifty Questions and Answers,” Leaves of Healing, v. 66, n. 9 (May 10, 1930), pp. 176-179, 182-184.
Isaac, E., 1983. “1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments, edited by James H. Charlesworth, pp. 5-89. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.
Morris, Henry M., 1956. The Bible and Modern Science. Revised edition. Chicago: Moody Press.
Rowbotham, Samuel Birley, 1873. Earth Not a Globe. London: John B. Day. 2nd edition.
Shanks, Hershel, 1987. “Don’t Let the Pseudepigrapha Scare You,” Bible Review, v. 3, n. 2 (Summer 1987), pp. 14-19, 34-37.
Strong, James, 1894. The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Reprint. Nashville: Abington Press, 1978.
Zukov, Gary, 1979. The Dancing Wu Li Masters. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.

King James XXIII

WEEK 23

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1 Corinthians 12:13

(KJV)   For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

(1611 KJV) For by one spirit are we all baptized into one bodie, whether wee bee Iewes or Gentiles, whether wee bee bond or free: and haue beene all made to drinke into one spirit.

(1587 Geneva Bible) For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we bee Iewes, or Grecians, whether we be bonde, or free, and haue bene all made to drinke into one Spirit.

Counterfeit Versions

(1881 RV) For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all made to drink of one Spirit.

(1901 ASV) For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all made to drink of one Spirit.

(AMP) For by one [Holy] Spirit we were all baptized into one body, [spiritually transformed—united together] whether Jews or Greeks (Gentiles), slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one [Holy] Spirit [since the same Holy Spirit fills each life].

(CEB) We were all baptized by one Spirit into one body, whether Jew or Greek, or slave or free, and we all were given one Spirit to drink.

(CEV) Some of us are Jews, and others are Gentiles. Some of us are slaves, and others are free. But God’s Spirit baptized each of us and made us part of the body of Christ. Now we each drink from that same Spirit.

(Douay Rheims – 1899 American Edition) For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free; and in one Spirit we have all been made to drink.

(ERV) Some of us are Jews and some of us are not; some of us are slaves and some of us are free. But we were all baptized to become one body through one Spirit. And we were all given the one Spirit.

(ESV) For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

(GNB) In the same way, all of us, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether slaves or free, have been baptized into the one body by the same Spirit, and we have all been given the one Spirit to drink.

(HCSB) For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body—whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free—and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.

(ISV) For by one Spirit all of us—Jews and Greeks, slaves and free—were baptized into one body and were all privileged to drink from one Spirit.

(JB PHILLIPS) As the human body, which has many parts, is a unity, and those parts, despite their multiplicity, constitute one single body, so it is with the body of Christ. For we were all baptised by the Spirit into one body, whether we were Jews, Gentiles, slaves or free men, and we have all had experience of the same Spirit.

(LEB) For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free persons, and all were made to drink one Spirit.

(LB) Each of us is a part of the one body of Christ. Some of us are Jews, some are Gentiles, some are slaves, and some are free. But the Holy Spirit has fitted us all together into one body. We have been baptized into Christ’s body by the one Spirit, and have all been given that same Holy Spirit.

(THE MESSAGE) You can easily enough see how this kind of thing works by looking no further than your own body. Your body has many parts—limbs, organs, cells—but no matter how many parts you can name, you’re still one body. It’s exactly the same with Christ. By means of his one Spirit, we all said good-bye to our partial and piecemeal lives.

(NABRE) For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, slaves or free persons, and we were all given to drink of one Spirit.

(NASV) For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.

(NCV) Some of us are Jews, and some are Greeks. Some of us are slaves, and some are free. But we were all baptized into one body through one Spirit. And we were all made to share in the one Spirit.

(NET) For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body. Whether Jews or Greeks or slaves or free, we were all made to drink of the one Spirit.

(NIRV) We were all baptized by one Holy Spirit. And so we are formed into one body. It didn’t matter whether we were Jews or Gentiles, slaves or free people. We were all given the same Spirit to drink.

(NIV) For we were all baptized by one Spirit so as to form one body—whether Jews or Gentiles, slave or free—and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.

(NLV) It is the same way with us. Jews or those who are not Jews, men who are owned by someone or men who are free to do what they want to do, have all been baptized into the one body by the same Holy Spirit. We have all received the one Spirit.

(NLT) Some of us are Jews, some are Gentiles, some are slaves, and some are free. But we have all been baptized into one body by one Spirit, and we all share the same Spirit.

(NRSV) For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.

(RSV) For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

(TLV) For in one Ruach we were all immersed into one body—whether Jewish or Greek, slave or free—and all were made to drink of one Ruach.

(VOICE) We were all ceremonially washed through baptism together into one body by one Spirit. No matter our heritage—Jew or Greek, insider or outsider—no matter our status—oppressed or free—we were all given the one Spirit to drink.

Textus Receptus – Traditional Text

και γαρ εν ενι πνευματι ημεις παντες εις εν σωμα εβαπτισθημεν ειτε ιουδαιοι ειτε ελληνες ειτε δουλοι ειτε ελευθεροι και παντες εις εν πνευμα εποτισθημεν

Hort-Westcott – Critical Text

και γαρ εν ενι πνευματι ημεις παντες εις εν σωμα εβαπτισθημεν ειτε ιουδαιοι ειτε ελληνες ειτε δουλοι ειτε ελευθεροι και παντες εν πνευμα εποτισθημεν

Corrupted Manuscripts

This verse is corrupted in the following manuscripts:

Aleph 01 – Sinaiticus – Nineteenth Century Counterfeit
B 03 – Vaticanus – Fourth century

C 04 – Ephraemi Rescriptus – Fifth century (original)

D 06 – Paris: Claromontanus – Sixth century (original)

P 025 – Ninth century

33 (Minuscule) – Ninth Century

Manuscripts which agree with the Textus Receptus for this verse

Byzantine Text (450-1450 A.D.)

Stephanus (1550 A.D.)

D 06 – Paris: Claromontanus – Sixth century (corrected)

K 018 – Ninth century

326 – (Minuscule) – Tenth Century

614 – (Minuscule) – Thirteenth Century

945 – (Minuscule) – Eleventh Century

2464 – (Minuscule) – Ninth century

Published Critical Greek Texts with Corruptions

Omit “into” render “drink of one Spirit”

Lachmann, Karl – 1842

Tischendorf, Constantine – 1869

Tregelles, Samuel – 1857

Alford, Henry – 1849 revised in 1871

Wordsworth, Christopher – 1856 revised in 1870

Weiss, Bernhard – 1894

Nestle – 1927 as revised in seventeenth edition in 1941

Nestle-Aland – 1979 – Twenty Sixth Edition

Nestle-Aland – 1993 – Twenty Seventh Edition

Nestle-Aland – 2012 – Twenty Eighth Edition

United Bible Societies – 1983 – Fourth Edition

Von Soden, Freiherr – 1902

Westcott and Hort – 1881

Affected Teaching

The word “into” as used in the King James Bible is a preposition which carries the meaning of “toward, to, unto.”  It is the Greek word “eis.”

Matthew 12:20 (KJV)   A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory.

Acts 1:10 (KJV)   And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel;

1 Corinthians 16:1 (KJV)   Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.

The word “into” in the English is a very strong word which carries with it the meaning of “some type of motion which will terminate once the toward or unto has been achieved.  In other words, the word denotes finality or goal reached.

Romans 6:3 (KJV)   Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?

In Romans 6:3, we read that the Christian has been baptized into Christ. In other words, once we are in Christ and united with him in spiritual baptism, the goal has been reached because we can never lose that unity with Christ, to wit, our salvation.  When we drink into one Spirit as our weekly verse teaches, we have reached the pinnacle of wisdom and salvation.  Our lives as Christians are always geared toward the Holy Spirit.  He is the one we seek for wisdom and understanding.

John 16:13 (KJV)   Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

The modern versions lose this great teaching by making it sound like we drink from the Spirit as we drink water. Our focus must be on the Spirit and the understanding He gives to the Christian.

1 Corinthians 12:13 (KJV)   For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

AMEN