The bible does not state anywhere that the earth is round.
People who try to justify that the bible describes the earth as spherical fail miserably.
The Hebrew and Canaanite cosmology and creation myth was in all likelihood borrowed from the neighbouring Babylonian (and possibly Egyptian) flat earth cosmology, which considered the earth as a flat ciscular disc, covered by a semi-spherical dome (called “vault”, “firmament” or heaven in the Bible), with the sun, moon and stars as small objects inserted into (not above) the dome. The firmament (sky) was seen as a solid semispherical “ceiling“:
Other ancient cosmologies at the time (for example the Greeks and Egyptians) also had flat earth cosmologies. The Egyptian cosmology described the earth as a flat square, but the Babylonians described it as a flat circular disc.
From their geographical and historical context, one would expect the ancient Hebrews to have a flat-earth cosmology.
… students with remarkably disparate points of view independently concluded that the ancient Hebrews had a flat-earth cosmology, often deriving this view from scripture alone. Their conclusions were dramatically confirmed by the rediscovery of 1 Enoch.
The creation story in Genesis, as well as many other bible verses, only make sense if your read it with this flat earth cosmology in mind:
The Genesis creation story provides the first key to the Hebrew cosmology. The order of creation makes no sense from a conventional perspective but is perfectly logical from a flat-earth viewpoint. The earth was created on the first day, and it was “without form and void” (Genesis 1:2). On the second day, a vault the “firmament” of the King James version was created to divide the waters, some being above and some below the vault. Only on the fourth day were the sun, moon, and stars created, and they were placed “in” (not “above”) the vault.
This picture of the cosmos is reinforced by Ezekiel’s vision. The Hebrew word raqiya appears five times in Ezekiel, four times in Ezekiel 1:22-26 and once in Ezekiel 10:1. In each case the context requires a literal vault or dome. The vault appears above the “living creatures” and glitters “like a sheet of ice.” Above the vault is a throne of sapphire (or lapis lazuli). Seated on the throne is “a form in human likeness,” which is radiant and “like the appearance of the glory of the Lord.” In short, Ezekiel saw a vision of God sitting throned on the vault of heaven, as described in Isaiah 40:22.
When keeping this ancient view of the earth in mind, it now suddenly also makes perfect sense how people who wrote the bible could think that:
God could “open the windows of heaven and the fountains of the earth” to flood the entire earth during Noah’s flood,
the devil could take Jesus to a very high mountain to see “all the kingdoms of the world“,
stars could sing (they were consider demigods in the Babylonian mythology) and fall from the sky,
God could command the sun (also a demigod) to stand still for a day.
people could build the Tower of Babel to reach the heaven,
people could see “a tree of great height at the centre of the earth…reaching with its top to the sky and visible to the earth’s farthest bounds“,
God is “at the zenith of the heavens and looks down on all the stars, high as they are“,
God “walketh on the vault of heaven“,
and many more (see link at the bottom).
Some of the answers on this page, which uses the quote about the “circle of the earth” to argue that the bible describe the earth as round, refers to this passage in the bible:
Isaiah 40:21-22 KJV:
Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.
People who use this verse to argue that the earth is round, reminds me about this quote from the link below:
Those who claim Biblical support for a spherical earth typically ignore this forest of consistency and focus on one or two aberrant trees. Some take refuge in audacity. Henry Morris, president of the Institute for Creation Research, cites one of the more explicitly flat-earth verses in the Old Testament Isaiah 40:22, the “grasshopper” verse quoted earlier as evidence for the sphericity of the earth. Quoting the King James version “he sitteth upon the circle of the earth” Morris ignores the context and the grasshoppers and claims “circle” should read “sphericity” or “roundness” [1956, 8]. This divide and conquer strategy is poor scholarship and worse logic.
Other efforts to justify that the Bible describes the earth as spherical, as can be seen in some of the answers on this page, is easily refuted:
Heroic efforts have been made by apologists to explain away the firmament, which encloses the celestial bodies, has waters above it, and is a masterpiece proving the Creator’s craftsmanship.
Perhaps the scripture most frequently offered as evidence of the earth’s sphericity is the King James version of Job 26:7, “He stretcheth out the north [tsaphon] over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing [beliymah].” (The [*unfortunately] New English Bible translates it, “God spreads the canopy of the sky over chaos and suspends earth in the void.”) It is not clear what this means. The Hebrew tsaphon literally meant hidden or dark, and it was used in reference to the northern regions. Beliymah literally means “nothing.” That would contradict all of the scriptures which say the earth rests on foundations, but that interpretation is not necessary. We will return to Job 26:7 later.
Bouw’s most interesting argument for sphericity is based on the gospel of Luke. He compares the King James version of Luke 17:31 and 17:34. The former says “In that day, he which shall be upon the house top…” and the latter “in that night there shall be two men in one bed…”. Bouw then cites 1 Corinthians 15:52 to argue that the events are simultaneous, claiming simultaneity is possible only on a spherical earth. First of all, the latter claim is wrong. The modern (though not the ancient) flat-earth model has day and night occurring simultaneously at different points on earth. Second, the Greek hemera was used much like the English “day.” It could mean the daylight hours, a 24-hour day, or (figuratively) an epoch of unspecified length. Third, Luke appears to have been writing figuratively, and citing Paul to prove otherwise begs the question.
In my view, all arguments to prove the Bible teaches a spherical earth are weak if not wrong- headed. On the other hand, the flat-earth cosmology previously described is historically consistent and requires none of the special pleading apparently necessary to harmonize the Bible with sphericity.